The core of Buddha’s teachings lies in the Four Noble Truths. These truths are the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the end of suffering, and the truth of the way that leads to the end of suffering, or Nirvana. Let’s look at the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism more closely.
1. Suffering (Dukkha)
According to Buddha, human life is full of suffering, pain, lack of satisfaction, and unfulfilled desires. Suffering may be physical or mental. Even if things are on the right track in life, people experience anger, anxiety, stress, and uncertainty. It’s rare to find the ultimate happiness or the utmost satisfaction in everything you do or experience. This is suffering. Everything in life is temporary and conditional. Even the body and other material things are the part of it but people see the happiness in it and left with the incapability of satisfying the desires.
Acknowledging suffering does not mean your pessimistic; it’s all about being realistic.
2. The Root of Suffering (Samudaya)
Buddhism asserts the main cause of suffering is desire and attachment. Buddha said that you must successfully accomplish the journey from desire to denial in order to realize the root cause of suffering. He also stated that it is the human tendency to constantly search for something else after satisfying a single need. This continuous outward search is temporary and that’s why all humans remain unsatisfied.
3. End of Suffering (Nirodha)
Buddha taught that you must understand that suffering is temporary and it may only end if you want it to end. Otherwise, there is no possible way to come out of it. To reduce the suffering, you will have to change your response to anything that happens to you as you do not have any control over the things that happens to you. Only you are the solution to your problems, difficulties, and pain. And all such things can be attained if you know the right path to enjoy the cessation of suffering.
4. The Path (Nirvana)
The path of ending sufferings will lead to spiritual enlightenment. It is a state of mind that experiences spiritual joy and the ultimate happiness with no desire. Constant practice of meditation, ethical conduct, and developed wisdom helps humans to attain this supreme stage. However, it takes a lot of time to understand and accumulate such knowledge and power.
Buddha also said that reaching this stage will allow you to escape yourself from the cycle of rebirth. However, there are lots of controversies behind it because Buddhism says that death is not the end but didn’t give a definite answer of what happens next if one is free from the cycling of rebirth.